Resources list on 'realist' evaluation . Be able to explain who and why to recruit to a realist research project team; Describe and explain the pros and cons of using quality and publication standards in realist research . An approach designed to support ongoing learning and adaptation, which identifies the processes required to achieve desired results, and then observes whether those processes take place, and how. While we do not seek to replicate this debate here, we acknowledge the possibility of using a critical realist approach to understand the outcomes of an RCT in primary care. Strategies and methods of realist evaluation 4. Click an approach on the left to navigate to it. 'http':'https';if(!d.getElementById(id)){js=d.createElement(s);js.id=id;js.src=p+"://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js";fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js,fjs);}}(document,"script","twitter-wjs"); Select a content type to filter search results: A special thanks to this page's contributors. Realist impact evaluation is an approach to impact evaluation that emphasises the importance of context for programme outcomes. This paper offers a model of research synthesis which is designed to work with complex social interventions or programmes, and which is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. Realist evaluation is a valuable method for addressing the complexity of social programmes. Realist evaluation is a theory-driven approach to evaluating evidence from complex interventions. This introduction will help evaluators and commissioners of evaluations to decide whether a realist approach is appropriate for evaluating the impact of a particular policy or programme. – based on a realist philosophy of science (ontology) – look to answer the ‘How?’, ‘Why?’, ‘For whom?’, ‘To The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. A realist approach assumes that programs are “theories incarnate”. Learning Evaluation is an approach to multi … Cited 9 times in Google Scholar. The realist approach to evaluation research: an introduction. There are few published examples of realist synthesis. Genevieve Coorey, David Peiris, Lis Neubeck, Julie Redfern, A realist evaluation approach to explaining the role of context in the impact of a complex eHealth intervention for improving prevention of cardiovascular disease, BMC Health Services Research, 10.1186/s12913-020-05597-5, 20, 1, (2020). Check the results are consistent with causal contribution, 3. This technique assumes that knowledge is a social and … It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. Powered By Scopus® Data. 189–190; Hammersley, 1998, p. 3; Suppe, 1977, p. 618); realism has been prominent in other areas of philosophy as well (Miller, 2010). A particular type of case study used to jointly develop an agreed narrative of how an innovation was developed, including key contributors and processes, to inform future innovation efforts. That is, whenever a program is implemented, it is testing a theory about what ‘might cause change’, even though that theory may not be explicit. Develop planning documents for the evaluation or M&E system, 8. Review evaluation (do meta-evaluation), 2. An impact evaluation approach suitable for retrospectively identifying emergent impacts by collecting evidence of what has changed  and, then, working backwards, determining whether and how an intervention has contributed to these changes. approach for over 30 years (Baert, 1998, pp. In healthcare change interventions, on-the-ground learning about the implementation process is often lost because of a primary focus on outcome improvements. It seeks to understand ‘what works, for who, in what circumstances and why’ rather than providing one-off verdicts on programme … A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. (2008). We also posit that we are currently observing the emergence of a fifth generation in evaluation: the explanation generation. Click an approach on the left to navigate to it They are However, theory-based approaches to evaluation, such as realist evaluation (RE), may be … Evaluation research is tortured by time constraints. Recommend content, collaborate, share, ask, tell us what you like, suggest an improvement, or just say hi! The paper provides a very brief introduction to the key ideas in realist evaluation and the implications of a realist approach for impact evaluation questions, evaluation design, programme theory, data collection, analysis and Realist evaluation using Normalization Process Theory as a programme theory to understand what enabled patient and public involvement to be embedded as normal practice. Improving skills and care standards in the support workforce for older people: a realist synthesis of workforce development interventions. Basic concepts in the explanation and understanding of programmes 3. Realist evaluations attempt to answer questions such as what works, for whom, in which circumstances, and why. Among the realist evaluation community, there is heated debate about whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are a credible method for understanding complex interventions . Realist research approaches • Realist evaluation = primary research • Realist review / synthesis = secondary research • Both approaches: – have more of an explanatory rather than judgmental focus. It is a generic approach that can be applied to many fields of research, including health and social care. An approach especially to impact evaluation which examines what works for whom in what circumstances through what causal mechanisms, including changes in the reasoning and resources of participants. The third section reviews concretely the realist debate over statistics and some realist contributions to qualitative methodology, qualitative This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Realist evaluations are based on an assumption that projects and programmes work under certain conditions and are influenced by the way that different stakeholders respond to them. Realist synthesis is an increasingly popular approach to the review and synthesis of evidence, which focuses on understanding the mechanisms by which an intervention works (or not). This article describes the key features of realist (realistic) evaluation and illustrates their application using, as an example, a simulation-based course for final year medical students. Combining qualitative and quantitative data, 1. REALIST . The UK population is getting older—by 2031 it is estimated that one in five people will be over 65 years old. – based on a realist philosophy of science (ontology) – looks for mechanisms and middle-range theories. Based on specific theories, realist evaluation provides an alternative lens to empiricist evaluation techniques for the study and understanding of programmes and policies. It explains when a realist impact evaluation may be most appropriate and outlines how to design and conduct an impact evaluation based on a realist approach. A research design that focuses on understanding a unit (person, site or project) in its context, which can use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. Applying a realist(ic) framework to the evaluation of a new model of emergency department based mental health nursing practice. For realist evaluations (RE) this project aims to: develop quality and reporting standards and training materials; build capacity for undertaking and critically evaluating them; produce resources and training materials for lay participants, and those seeking to involve them. Resources list on 'realist' evaluation . For example, 'Randomized Controlled Trials' (RCTs) use a combination of the options random sampling, control group and standardised indicators and measures. It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. Drawing on our own experiences, we make the case that, used in conjunction with a realist approach, Soft Systems Methodology can provide a useful tool to a) map programme complexity, and b) develop and refine stakeholders programme theories, thus increasing the transparency, reliability, validity and accuracy of the theory building and refining process in realist approaches. It is a useful approach to document stories of impact and to develop an understanding of the factors that enhance or impede impact. It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. Realist data analysis is driven by the principles of realism: realist evaluation explains change brought about by an intervention by referring to the actors who act and change (or not) a situation under specific conditions and under the influence of external events (including the intervention itself). Realism research philosophy relies on the idea of independence of reality from the human mind. The realist approach to evaluation research: an introduction By Gillian Hewitt, Sarah Sims, Ruth Harris and University of London Kingston University and St. George's Topics: alliedhealth, health, nursing Doing Realist Research combines the foundations of the realist methodology with the very latest thinking in the application, and development, of the approach.From understanding mechanisms, and the formulation of programme theories, to understanding the role of … Evaluation has become progressively popular within public health and healthcare programme research, with an emphasis on outcomes and … One of the tasks of a realist evaluation is therefore to make the theories within a program explicit, by developing clear hypotheses about how, and for whom, programs might ‘work’. This paper describes the Learning Evaluation, a methodological approach that blends quality improvement and implementation research methods to study healthcare innovations. In this article we defend the idea that theory-based evaluations—contribution analysis, logic analysis, and realist evaluation—are complementary components of a new theory in evaluation. An impact evaluation approach without a control group that uses narrative causal statements elicited directly from intended project beneficiaries. principles of realist methodology I have discussed today remain: 1)Both the material and social world are real. As a result, the quest for evidence-based policy (EBP) has turned increasingly to systematic reviews of the results of previous inquiries in the relevant policy domain. In knowledge translation, complex interventions may be implemented in the attempt to improve uptake of research-based knowledge in practice. That is, whenever a program is implemented, it is testing a theory about what ‘might cause change’, even though that theory may not … Realism is an approach to humanity which recognizes the real existence of social objects as well as physical objects. Medical Education 2012, 46:1, 89–96 • Klee R. Introduction to the philosophy of science. An approach that focuses on assessing the value of an intervention as perceived by the (intended) beneficiaries, thereby aiming to give voice to their priorities and concerns. This approach was developed by Robert Brinkerhoff to assess the impact of organisational interventions, such as training and coaching, though the use of SCM is not limited to this context. Aarons et al argue for ‘borrowing strength’ from evidence from earlier outcome evaluations to allow for evaluation in a new setting to focus on process rather than outcomes, but do not provide detail of how such decisions can be made beyond the assessment of similarity of population and intervention mechanisms in the new context. A realist review adopts a theory-driven approach to evidence synthesis, underpinned by a realist philosophy of science and causality. "A realist approach assumes that programs are “theories incarnate”. There are ongoing philosophical debates over realism that remain unre-solved, and realist philosophers themselves disagree about many of these issues; Evaluation has become progressively popular within public health and healthcare programme research, with an emphasis on outcomes and … This introduction aims to explain realist impact evaluation for those unfamiliar with its principles. An approach used to surface, elaborate, and critically consider the options and implications of boundary judgments, that is, the ways in which people/groups decide what is relevant to what is being evaluated. The introduction to the chapter covers ontology as it relates to research methods. Approach primarily intended to clarify differences in values among stakeholders by collecting and collectively analysing personal accounts of change. Realism’s place in the policy cycle: formative, summative and synthetic approaches 5. Unlike the existing literature that borrows critical realist perspectives to conduct analysis that is essentially thematic, we offer a comprehensive approach to the analysis of qualitative data that employs realist concepts of context, mechanism, and outcome. A strengths-based approach designed to support ongoing learning and adaptation by identifying and investigating outlier examples of good practice and ways of increasing their frequency. Realist approaches are a form of theory-driven evaluation which search for and refine explanations of programme effectiveness, however, several realist studies have been identified which lack this essential process (Pawson and Manzano-Santaella, 2012). In this workshop, participants will explore the advantage of using realist methodology to go beyond the question of ‘did an intervention work or not?’ to addressing questions about how, for whom, and under what circumstances interventions produce their particular outcomes. The realist evaluation approach is a relatively new approach to evaluation, especially in some fields (such as health services research). Student Feedback "I found the 5 days to be an excellent introduction and overview of realist evaluation and realist synthesis. 2)All scientific enquiry is mediated by humans—there is no such thing as final truth or knowledge. (Community Matters 2004-2008), Community Matters. This introduction aims to explain realist impact evaluation for those unfamiliar with its principles. View in Google Scholar, Cited 24 times in Scopus. https://www.ijtr.co.uk/cgi-bin/go.pl/library/artic... Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement (DECIPHer), H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General). Content: This article introduces the reader to the realist approach and outlines its application in empirical evaluation studies and literature syntheses. Traditional evaluation efforts that focus on aggregate effectiveness represent an oversimplification of both the environment and the interventions themselves. Introduction. An approach especially to impact evaluation which examines what works for whom in what circumstances through what causal mechanisms, including changes in the reasoning and resources of participants. Various ways of doing evaluation in ways that support democratic decision making, accountability and/or capacity. Introduction 1. This thesis is a report of a theory driven study designed to evaluate the role of the 'intermediary' in promoting best practice in infection prevention and control. It is based on the epistemological foundations of critical realism. It is based on the epistemological foundations of critical realism.Based on specific theories, realist evaluation provides an alternative lens to empiricist evaluation techniques for the study and understanding of programmes and policies. • Wong G, Greenhalgh T, Westhorp G, Pawson R. Realist methods in medical education research: what are they and what can they contribute? Appendix II – ‘Varieties of realist evaluation’: pocket illustrations of quantitative, qualitative, formative and synthetic applications. An impact evaluation approach which unpacks  an initiative’s theory of change, provides a framework to collect data on immediate, basic changes that lead to longer, more transformative change, and allows for the plausible assessment of the initiative’s contribution to results via ‘boundary partners’. It is a generic approach that can be applied to many fields of research, including health and social care. Thus realism does involve being realistic. It provides an explanatory analysis aimed at discerning what works for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects and how. An approach designed to support ongoing learning and adaptation, through iterative, embedded evaluation. The designers of realist evaluations have developed some key assumptions, based on this philosophy. Realist evaluation: an introduction Realist evaluation is a theory-driven approach to evaluating evidence from complex interventions. Realist Evaluation. Applying a realist(ic) framework to the evaluation of a new model of emergency department based mental health nursing practice. I have read and I accept the terms of BetterEvaluation’s. This web page from Community Matters provides a brief introduction to realist evaluation along with the a chapter by Ray Pawson and Nick Tilley that provides discussion of the basic concepts , strategies and methods of realist evaluation. Realist evaluation is a type of theory-driven evaluation method used in evaluating social programmes. This philosophy is based on the assumption of a scientific approach to the development of knowledge. A realist evaluation provides an account of how aspects of and combinations of context and mechanisms interact to influence outcomes. Complex interventions ... drawing on realist approaches to evaluation and suggesting what sorts of evidence and information local decision-makers need to draw on. Conclusions: Realist evaluation and realist synthesis are an advanced approach to evaluation research, but they offer an innovative and insightful means by which to further our understanding of complex social interventions. This paper introduces the realist approach and explains why it is particularly suited to education research. Introduction to Evaluation Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it requires group skills, management ability, political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple stakeholders and other skills that social research in general does not rely on as much. Cutting nature at its seams. But more importantly, it asserts that the things we are studying in social research have some prior existence and would continue to exist even if our knowledge of them was limited. Realist evaluation is a type of theory-driven evaluation method used in evaluating social programmes. 26 Causal explanations are expressed as contingent relationships between mechanisms (changes in participants’ reasoning or resources), context (contingencies) and outcomes, often abbreviated to context-mechanism-outcome configuration (CMO) to show how … The nature of programmes and how they work 2. A Realist Approach to Qualitative Data Analysis: Interviews With Indigenous Patients With Cancer; Epistemology and Metaphysics for Qualitative Research; Researching Social Exclusion & Vulnerability Using Realist Methods; An Introduction to Critical Management Research; An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology We are a global collaboration aimed at improving evaluation practice and theory through co-creation, curation, and sharing information. Retrieved from http://www.communitymatters.com.au/gpage1.html. A strengths-based approach to learning and improvement that involves intended evaluation users in identifying ‘outliers’ – those with exceptionally good outcomes - and understanding how they have achieved these. The implementation of the program, and the evaluation of it, then tests those hypotheses. Brief introduction to realist evaluation. But more importantly, it asserts that the things we are studying in social research have some prior existence and would continue to exist even if our knowledge of them was limited. Define ethical and quality evaluation standards, Document management processes and agreements, Develop planning documents for the evaluation or M&E system, Develop programme theory / theory of change, activities, outcomes, impacts and context, Combine qualitative and quantitative data, Check the results are consistent with causal contribution, Investigate possible alternative explanations, Sustained and emerging impacts evaluation (SEIE), Technology and evaluation in insecure settings, Evaluation practice in Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander settings, http://www.communitymatters.com.au/gpage1.html, 3. A particular type of case study used  to create a narrative of how institutional arrangements have evolved over time and have created and contributed to more effective ways to achieve project or program goals. Rycroft-Malone J, Burton CR, Williams L, et al. This paper offers a model of research synthesis which is designed to work with complex social interventions or programmes, and which is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. The second section of the review introduces retroduction, a major methodological starting-point common to most realists. It provides an explanatory analysis aimed at discerning what works for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects and how. Be the first to comment on this page! Define ethical and quality evaluation standards, 6. This paper therefore fills a gap by describing, in detail, the process used for a realist review and synthesis to answer the question ‘what interventions … A Realist Approach to Qualitative Data Analysis: Interviews With Indigenous Patients With Cancer; Epistemology and Metaphysics for Qualitative Research; Researching Social Exclusion & Vulnerability Using Realist Methods; An Introduction to Critical Management Research; An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology This process evaluation incorporates components of the Medical Research Council’s guidance on process evaluations of complex interventions (MRC guidance),1 grounded theory13 and a realist theoretical approach.14 We use qualitative methods (semistructured interviews and thematic analysis). 3)Interventions (and research) are ‘theory incarnate’ 4)All (social) systems are open, yet context matters in every explanation. Approach to this process evaluation. Thus realism does involve being realistic. An impact evaluation approach based on contribution analysis, with the addition of processes for expert review and community review of evidence and conclusions. A range of approaches that engage stakeholders (especially intended beneficiaries) in conducting the evaluation and/or making decisions about the evaluation​. NCBI Bookshelf. 11 We describe an approach to considering these … This means collecting data, not just about program impacts, or the processes of program implementation, but about the specific aspects of program context that might impact on program outcomes, and about the specific mechanisms that might be creating change." Introduction: Realist evaluation is an increasingly popular methodology in health services research. Decide who will conduct the evaluation, 5. The use of simulation-based education (SBE) is increasing and so too is the evidence supporting its value as a powerful technique which can lead to substantial educational benefits. The realist approach is a form of theory-driven evaluation developed to strengthen the explanatory power of evaluation studies and contribute to evidence-based policy and practice. It explains when a realist impact evaluation may be most The realist evaluation approach was first developed by Pawson and Tilley (1997) and has since been adapted in many different ways. We’d love to hear from you. Key words: Realist evaluation, Realist Syntheses, Soft Systems Methodology, Stakeholders, Systems Thinking. An impact evaluation approach that compares results between a randomly assigned control group and experimental group or groups to produce an estimate of the mean net impact of an intervention. Realist approaches to evaluation assume that nothing works everywhere or for everyone: context really does make a difference to programme outcomes. Its overall place in the toolkit of evaluation approaches is not yet fully established. The nature, presentation and use of findings from realist evaluation 6. Abstract Background: The realist approach is a form of theory-driven evaluation developed to strengthen the explanatory power of evaluation studies and contribute to evidence-based policy and practice. Background. View in Scopus. This introduction aims to explain realist impact evaluation for those unfamiliar with its principles. Login Login and comment as BetterEvaluation member or simply fill out the fields below. This can be in a narrative form or expressed as ‘CMO’ equations, which describe the Context and Mechanisms that can lead to wanted Outcomes. Realist researchers then try to articulate the theories (termed 'mechanisms') that underpin the programme and explore how contexts influence the mechanisms to produce different programme outcomes. The policy cycle revolves more quickly than the research cycle, with the result that `real time' evaluations often have little influence on policy making. As realist approaches gain momentum in the evaluation of complex social programmes and interventions, attention is turning to how other approaches can complement realist … Document management processes and agreements, 7. For realist evaluations (RE) this project aims to: develop quality and reporting standards and training materials; build capacity for undertaking and critically evaluating them; produce resources and training materials for lay participants, and those seeking to involve them. 1 Older people are the main recipients of care in the National Health Service (NHS), and older people's care costs the UK NHS relatively more than those of working age. EVALUATION. Introduction. It gives a brief introduction to the philosophical assumptions underlying realist methods and outlines key principles of realist evaluation (designed for empirical studies) and realist review (the application of realist methods to secondary research). An participatory approach to value-for-money evaluation that identifies a broad range of social outcomes, not only the direct outcomes for the intended beneficiaries of an intervention. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997 It seeks to understand ‘what works, for who, in what circumstances and why’ rather than providing one-off verdicts on programme … However, theory-based approaches to evaluation, such as realist evaluation (RE), may be better-suited to examination of complex knowledge translation interventions with a view to understanding what works, for whom, and under what conditions. Investigate possible alternative explanations, 1. A way to jointly develop an agreed narrative of how an innovation was developed, including key contributors and processes, to inform future innovation efforts. Data were collected through a national scoping and survey, and qualitative methods to track patient and public involvement processes and impact over time within 22 nationally funded research projects. Realist evaluation is a valuable method for addressing the complexity of social programmes. What are realist evaluation and synthesis? Tweets by @BetterEval !function(d,s,id){var js,fjs=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0],p=/^http:/.test(d.location)? Introduction: Realist evaluation is an increasingly popular methodology in health services research. Genevieve Coorey, David Peiris, Lis Neubeck, Julie Redfern, A realist evaluation approach to explaining the role of context in the impact of a complex eHealth intervention for improving prevention of cardiovascular disease, BMC Health Services Research, 10.1186/s12913-020-05597-5, 20, 1, (2020). evaluation approaches may not be feasible, with the broader aim of identifying lessons with wider application potential. A convergent, parallel mixed methods evaluation design based on a realist approach using surveys, audits, observations and semi-structured interviews. A participatory approach which enables  farmers to analyse their own situation and develop a common perspective on natural resource management and agriculture at village level. It describes how the realist researcher evaluates complex social interventions not by asking whether a particular programme or intervention 'works', but, recognising that all interventions only ever work for certain people in certain circumstances, by asking instead 'what works for whom in what circumstances'? • Realist evaluation = primary research • Realist synthesis = secondary research • Both methods: – have more of an explanatory rather than judgmental focus. Direct realism, also known as naive realism, can be described as “what you see is what you get”[1]. Appendix III – ‘Would it work here?’: a grid to help decide on the feasibility of mounting a programme ‘on your patch’. Doing Realist Research combines the foundations of the realist methodology with the very latest thinking in the application, and development, of the approach.From understanding mechanisms, and the formulation of programme theories, to understanding the role of … It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. An impact evaluation approach that iteratively maps available evidence against a theory of change, then identifies and addresses challenges to causal inference.
2020 the realist approach to evaluation research:an introduction