Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г.  The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela mentions Jews living in Derbent in the 12th century, and Christian traveler Wilhelm of Rubruquis writes about a Jewish community in the 13th century. Canals of St Petersburg, Russia As visitors gaze upon the canals that criss-cross through the village of St Petersburg, many are unaware that they are witnessing paths carved in the name of trade and westernization.  Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor.  In 1989, there were 13,000 Jews in the city, but most emigrated after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World. Map of the Sasanian fortifications at Derbent, by Roderich von Erckert, The citadel of Naryn-Kala and the walls of Derbent, Section of the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, Background and first fortifications at Derbent, Creation of the Sasanian fortification complex, BBC: Dagestan gunmen kill one at south Russia fortress, UNESCO: Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fortifications_of_Derbent&oldid=989635833, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. After the Timurud invasion, Ibrahim I of Shirvan, the 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to keep the kingdom of Shirvan independent. In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List, highlighting the following sites: Derbent Wall- a double wall built in t… Derbent is the oldest cultural center of Dagestan Republic, the birthplace of its spiritual and material culture, it is where art, art crafts, written language, values of Islam and other world religions spread from. About two kilometers (1.2 miles) from the city is the vacation colony of Chayka (Seagull). After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews.  The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." Already in Classical Antiquity, the settlement of Derbent and its wider region (the "Caspian Gates") were known for their strategic location between the Caspian Sea and the eastern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, separating the settled regions south of the Caucasus from the nomadic peoples dominating the Pontic–Caspian steppe to the north. The room is large with equipped with new furniture. And a mosque again. 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Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Закона №43 от 30 апреля 2015 г. A UNESCO World Heritage site in Dagestan partially collapsed after heavy rain. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of … The chief rabbi of Derbent, Obadiah Isakov, was badly injured in an assassination attempt on July 25, 2013, sparking concerns of further acts of anti-Semitism targeting the Jewish community. When intact, the wall had a height of 9 m (29 ft) and a thickness of about 3 m (10 ft) and, with its iron gates and numerous watch-towers, defended Persia's frontier.. Derbent - the oldest Djuma-mosque in North Caucasus. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World, Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast, List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia, "База данных показателей муниципальных образований", "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: The witness of great history - See 104 traveler reviews, 452 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. The wall of Darial Pass which is between Gorgia and southern Russia in the Caucasus mountain range. From a small early Bronze-age settlement to one of the biggest medieval cities of the Eastern Europe, the city of Derbent has a unique urban structure. The Sassanids had also brought Armenians from Syunik to help protect the pass from invaders; as Arab rule weakened in the region at the end of the ninth century, the Armenians living there were able to establish a kingdom, which lasted until the early years of the thirteenth century. Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. They were renowned for their cultural achievements and geopolitical pursuits. Indeed, here the Caucasus Mountains most closely approach the Caspian Sea, forming a narrow “neck”, the movement through which is easy to control. , "-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband;...", In Arabic texts the city was known as "Bāb al-Abwāb" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْأَبْوَاب, lit. The 21st Shirvanshah king, Akhsitan I, briefly reconquered the city. Дагестан. Derbent claims to be one of the oldest cities in the world and the southernmost one of the Russian Federation. During the Khazars' reign, they played an important part in the life of the city. A prison. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. Idem and A. R. Shikhsaidov, “Derbend-name (k istorii izucheniya)” (Darband-nāma. Despite that, the emirate outlived its rival and continued to flourish at the time of the Mongol invasion in 1239. The name of the defensive complex Naryn-Kala (the citadel and the Derbent wall) means “narrow gate”. Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. Derbent stayed under Iranian rule, while occasionally briefly taken by the Ottoman Turks such as in 1583 after the Battle of Torches and the Treaty of Constantinople, till the course of the 19th century, when the Russians occupied the city and wider Iranian-ruled swaths of Dagestan..  The Holy Saviour Armenian Church still rises up in the skyline, though it is used as the Museum of Carpet, Arts and Crafts today due to the decline in the Armenian population. His successor, Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, and the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. Maskut (also known as Mazkut, Muskur, Mazkat, Mashkut, or Maskat) is a historical region located along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, laying on today's republics of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia)..  Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In the 14th century, Derbent was occupied by Timur's armies. Derbent Hostels; Derbent Beach Hotels; Derbent Family Hotels; Near Landmarks. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. As a consequence of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and the resulting Treaty of Gulistan of 1813, Derbent and wider Dagestan were forcedly and irrevocably ceded by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire. After the Arab conquest of Persia various Arabic inscriptions were also made on the walls. , From the 4th century BCE, the settlement began to expand beyond the hill fortress, which became a citadel to an expanding city. They transformed it into an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the area. They killed 1 person and injured 12. The length … Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Derbent serves as the administrative center of Derbentsky District, even though it is not a part of it.  As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. M. S. Saidov, ed., Katalog arabskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta IYaL Dagestanskogo filiala AN SSSR (Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the H.L.L. Naryn-Kala fortress in Derbent With a history going back by five thousand years, Derbent is said to be Russia’s oldest city. of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977. View of Derbent city from the fortress wall (Dagestan, Russia  This account seems to be corroborated by the Spanish Arab Ḥamīd Moḥammad Ḡarnāṭī, who reported in 1130 that Derbent was populated by many ethnic groups, including a large Persian-speaking population..